The Practice of First Aid
The practice of first Aid
In most situations that require first aid, there will be on life-threatening danger. You will simply be assisting a conscious casualty, whose recovery from some minor injury or illness is not in doubt. in all cases, your aim is to work a plan and discover what is wrong with the casualty, and to give prompt, correct treatment in a methodical way.
Assessing the situation
Before tending to a casualty, however, you must survey the whole scene. Your first responsibility is to make sure that the area is safe. Often hazards such as passing traffic can be dealt with simply, but where the danger is too great or too imminent, you may need to move the casualty even at the risk of aggravating the injury. Do this only if it is safe to approach the casualty: you cannot help others if you also become a casualty. only when the casualty is safe can you begin to treat the illness or injury.
When you are sure that it is safe to do so, quickly perform a brief examination of the casualty. This initial assessment is to check for any life-threatening conditions that need urgent first aid to preserve life.
You must perform the checks shown below before making a full diagnosis, and, if necessary, you should be prepared to carry out the appropriate steps to resuscitate the casualty first.
If you suspect that there may be head or neck injuries involved, move the casualty very carefully and only if it is absolutely necessary.
Sending for help
If you think it is needed, send for help promptly. Try to send someone else while you stay with the casualty, but ensure that they report back to you after making the call.
1. Check for consciousness
If the casualty does not respond when spoken to, he may be unconscious. try to elicit a response. Be careful not to move the head or neck.
2. Open the airway
An unconscious casualty's airway may be blocked by tongue falling back. Open the airway by titling the head back.
3. Check for breathing
Once the casualty's airway is open, establish whether he is breathing. If so, place in the recovery position. If not, give two breaths.
4. Check for circulation
If the heart is beating, you should be able to feel a pulse in the neck or at the wrist. Check for a baby's pulse on the inside of the upper arm.
5. Check for bleeding
severe loss of blood reduces the circulation to the vital organs, and can cause serious shock. Control serious bleeding and as soon as breathing and pulse are established.
What to do next
As soon as you have established the condition of the casualty, take appropriate action, based on whether he is:
- Unconscious, not breathing, and without a pulse;
- Unconscious, not breathing, with a pulse;
- Unconscious, breathing, with a pulse;
- Conscious, breathing, with a pulse.