first aid

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Thursday, January 11, 2007


Effective first aid usually begins before any direct contact with the casualty. You should approach any incident with firmness, authority, and control in order to reassure the casualty and any bystanders. This is particularly important if there are many casualties, when calm, systematic attitude on your part can help to prevent further injuries and enhance the survival of the casualties.

The principles of emergency first aid

Clear rules exist to ensure safety in hazardous situations and this chapter will make you aware of these. You will also learn how and when to alert the mergency services, understand which branch is appropriate to different emergencies, and be able to brief them clearly on their arrival.

Assess the situation
> Observe what has happened quckly and calmly.
> Look for dangers to yourself and to the casualty.
> Never put yourself at risk.

Make the area safe
> Protect the casualty from danger.
> Be aware of your limitations.

Assess all casualties and give emergency first aid
> Assess each casualty to determine treatment priorities, and treat those with life-threatening conditions first.

Get help

> Quickly ensure that any necessary specialist help has been summoned and is on its way.


Working to a clear plan during and emergency will help to encsure that you are effectively prioritising the many demands upon your attention.
Don not allow yourself to become distracted by non-vtal activities. Always bear in mind the main steps of emergency action---Assess, Make Safe, Give Emergency Aid, and get Help.
> Control your feelings
> Take a moment to think.
> Do not place yourself in danger.
> Use your common sense.
> Do not attempt too much alone.
> Be aware of potential dangers such as gas or petrol: use your eyes, ears, and nose to look for clues, for example the hiss of gas or smell of petrol.


Your approach should be brisk, but calm and controlled, so that you can quickly take in as much information as possible. Your priorities are to identify any risks to yourself, to the casualty, and to any bystanders, then to assess the resources available to you and the kind of help you may need. State that you have first aid skill when offering your help. If there are no doctors, nurse, or more experienced people present, calmly take charge. First ask yourself these questions:
> Is there any continue danger?
> Is anyone's life in immediate danger?
> Are there bystanders who can help?
> Do i need specialist help?


The conditions that caused the accident may still be presenting further danger. Remember that you must put your own safety first. You cannot help others if you become a casualty yourself.
Often, very simple measures, such as turning off an electric switch, are enough to make the area safe. Sometimes more complicated procedures are required. NEver put risk by attempting to do too much; be aware of your limitations.

Dealing with ongoing danger
If you cannot eliminate a life-threatening haxard, you must try to put some distance between it and the casualty, by attempting to remove the danger from the casualty if possible. In many situations, you will need specialist help and equipment.


Once it is safe, quickly make an initial assessment of each casualty following the ABC of resuscitation, so that any casualty needing emergency first aid is treated immediately.
Establish whether each casualty:
> Is conscious;
> Has an open airways;
> Is breathing
> Has a pulse.
Your findings dictate your priorities and when and how much help is needed


You may be faced with a number of tasks; to maintain safety, to telephone for help, and to start first aid. Other people can be asked to:
> Make the area safe;
> Thelephone for assistance;
> Fetch first-aid equipment;
> Control bleeding or support a limb;
> Maintain the casualty's pripacy;
> Transport the casualty to a safe place.

The control of onlookers
The reaction of by standers may cause you concern or even anger. Most of them will have no first-aid training and that could make them feel helpless or frightened. If they have without realising it, and will certainly be distressed. If you need to ask a bystander to help, do so in a firm, but gentle manner.

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  • First Response Training is the leading provider for emergency first aid and health and safety training in the UK. First Response now offers over 50 different courses to an average of 1000 students per week.

    By Blogger jimmi, At 4:05 AM  

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